Fundamental Rights of Citizens of India as Guaranteed by Constitution



»  The Fundamental Rights is sections of the Constitution of India that prescribe the fundamental obligations of the State to its citizens.
»  The Fundamental Rights is defined as the basic human rights of all citizens. These rights, defined in Part III of the Constitution, apply irrespective of race, place of birth, religion, caste, creed or gender.
»  They are enforceable by the courts, subject to specific restrictions.
»  Seven fundamental rights were originally provided by the Constitution – right to equality, right to freedom, right against exploitation, right to freedom of religion, cultural and educational rights, right to property and right to constitutional remedies.
»  However, the right to property was removed from Part III of the Constitution by the 44th Amendment in 1978.
»  The purpose of the Fundamental Rights is to preserve individual liberty and democratic principles based on equality of all members of society.
»  Dr Ambedkar said that the responsibility of the legislature is not just to provide fundamental rights but also and rather more importantly, to safeguard them.
»  Fundamental Rights
1.       Right to equality (Article 14-18)
2.       Right to freedom (Article 19-22)
3.       Right against exploitation (Article 23-24)
4.       Right to freedom of religion (Articles 25-28)
5.       Cultural & educational rights (Articles 29-30)
6.       Right to Property (Article 31)
7.       Right to constitutional remedies (Article 32).
»  Originally Constitution provided seven Fundamental Rights viz.
»  At present there are only six Fundamental rights, six fundamental rights are described below in brief.

List of Fundamental Rights in Indian Constitution [Articles 14-18, 19-22, 23-24, 25-28, 29-30, 32]

Right to Equality
Article 14 :- Equality before law and equal protection of law
Article 15 :- Prohibition of discrimination on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth.
Article 16 :- Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment
Article 17 :- End of untouchability
Article 18 :- Abolition of titles, Military and academic distinctions are, however, exempted
Right to Freedom
Article 19 :- It guarantees the citizens of India the following six fundamentals freedoms:-
Freedom of Speech and Expression
Freedom of Assembly
Freedom of form Associations
Freedom of Movement
Freedom of Residence and Settlement
Freedom of Profession, Occupation, Trade and Business
Article 20 :- Protection in respect of conviction for offences
Article 21 :- Protection of life and personal liberty
Article 22 :- Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases
Right Against Exploitation
Article 23 :- Traffic in human beings prohibited
Article 24 :- No child below the age of 14 can be employed
Right to freedom of Religion
Article 25 :- Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion
Article 26 :- Freedom to manage religious affairs
Article 27 :- Prohibits taxes on religious grounds
Article 28 :- Freedom as to attendance at religious ceremonies in certain educational institutions
Cultural and Educational Rights
Article 29 :- Protection of interests of minorities
Article 30 :- Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions
Article 31 :- Omitted by the 44th Amendment Act
Right to Constitutional Remedies
Article 32 :- The right to move the Supreme Court in case of their violation (called Soul and heart of the Constitution by BR Ambedkar)
Forms of Writ check
Habeas Corpus :- Equality before law and equal protection of law
Right to Property
Article 31:- Provided that "no person shall be deprived of his property save by authority of law." It also provided that compensation would be paid to a person whose property has been taken for public purposes.
*This right was omitted by the 44th Amendment Act in December, 1978

Frequently asked:
How many fundamental rights are there in the Constitution of India?
The Constitution guarantees six fundamental rights to Indian citizens as follows: (i) right to equality, (ii) right to freedom, (iii) right against exploitation, (iv) right to freedom of religion, (v) cultural and educational rights, and (vi) right to constitutional remedies.
What are the fundamental rights in India?
Seven fundamental rights were originally provided by the Constitution – right to equality, right to freedom, right against exploitation, right to freedom of religion, cultural and educational rights, right to property and right to constitutional remedies. The right to property was removed from Part III of the Constitution by the 44th Amendment in 1978.
What is the right to equality?
Right to Equality. The Constitution says that the government shall not deny to any person in India equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws. It means that the laws apply in the same manner to all, regardless of a person's status. This is called the rule of law.
What is right to constitutional remedies?
Right to constitutional remedies [Article 32 to 35] empowers the citizens to move a court of law in case of any denial of the fundamental rights. For instance, in case of imprisonment, the citizen can ask the court to see if it is according to the provisions of the law of the country.
Which fundamental right cannot be suspended even during an emergency under article 352 of the constitution?
During a national emergency, many Fundamental Rights of Indian citizens can be suspended. The six freedoms under Right to Freedom are automatically suspended. By contrast, the Right to Life and Personal Liberty cannot be suspended according to the original Constitution.
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